In honor of Pride month, I wanted to
share some knowledge about human sexuality that can be quite confusing.
Although some of these Frequently Asked Questions may seem obvious to some, I
think most people would be surprised at how little they really understand about
the differences between these words and phrases.
What is the difference between sex and gender?
Sex is defined by our biological position on the spectrum of femaleness and
maleness. Gender is defined by our psychological and sociocultural attributes
that are associated with being female or male.
What does gender identity mean?
Gender identity is defined by one’s personal, subjective
sense of their gender, which is different from our biological sex.
What is sexual orientation?
Sexual orientation is the unique pattern of sexual and romantic desire,
behavior, and identity that each person experiences.
Doesn’t sexual orientation consist of just three categories,
heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual?
No it does not. After several studies, Alfred Kinsey
discovered that sexual orientation is more of a continuum so he developed the
Kinsey Scale. On the Kinsey Scale, 0 represents exclusive patterns of
heterosexual behavior and attraction, and 6 represent an exclusive pattern of
homosexual behavior and attraction. The numbers in between the two represent
varying levels of bisexuality.
people use sex and gender interchangeably without realizing the difference.
While sex refers to our biology, gender defines our expectations about what
makes us feminine or masculine and is determined by psychological, social, and
cultural characteristics. Knowing the difference is not only important in order
to fully understand what someone is talking about but also important in order
to inform someone who may be confused about this. Additionally, many people
believe that our sex should determine our gender. This is where understanding
sexual identity comes into play. Sexual identity refers to a person’s individual
perception of being female or male. A person could have an outward appearance
of a male but have female sex organs and instead of identifying as female, identify
as male, which is a form of transgenderism. Sexual orientation is often lumped
into three categories such as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual. However,
thanks to Alfred Kinsey, we now know that sexual orientation is much more
complex than this and should be described as being a continuum as shown below.
research has shown that sexual minorities such as bisexual, gay, transgender, and
lesbian individuals are at a higher risk for depression than heterosexual
individuals. The reason being that they are (for varied reasons) less open
about their sexual orientation. Knowing this can help aid people in their
journey to discover their sexual orientation and become more comfortable and
supported in being open about it. It can also help you to be more aware of
things to be looking for like signs of depression, anxiety, suicide, and stress
in a friend, family member, co-worker, etc. who may be exploring their sexual
more support and acceptance of the LGBTQ community in this day and age, brings
about those who have been hiding their true gender identity or sexual
orientation. Now more than ever, it is important to understand important terms
and meanings of these terms in order to better serve this community and also
family members and friends of the LGBTQ community who may not understand the
research behind these terms and the importance of supporting them despite their
beliefs. By sharing our knowledge of sexual orientation, we can work together
to end hate and discrimination.
R., & Baur, K. (2017). Our sexuality, thirteenth edition. Cengage Learning.
J. J. (2013). The psychology of human sexuality. Sussex, UK: John Wiley &
der Star, A., Pachankis, J. E., & Bränström, R. (2019). Sexual orientation
openness and depression symptoms: A population-based study. Psychology
of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity.
What is love? According to Sue Johnson, “It’s intuitive and yet not necessarily obvious: It’s the continual search for a basic, secure connection with someone else. Through this bond, partners in love become emotionally dependent on each other for nurturing, soothing, and protection” (Johnson, 2009). Humans have a hard-wired need for emotional responsiveness and closeness. At the beginning of our lives, we are born with the survival response and need for attachment from our mothers. This need for a secure attachment never fades; it follows us into adulthood evolving into the need for a secure attachment with a partner.
Underneath most fights and marital issues is the longing to feel connected to your partner, to feel that secure attachment and to know, do I matter? Are you there for me? Unfortunately, our culture has painted the picture that this type of dependency is weak and undesirable. Because of this, many relationships begin to exhibit over time, physical and emotional isolation that is actually traumatizing to humans; it communicates to the brain “danger.”
Most relationships begin with a super close connection; partners tend to be more responsive to each other’s needs. However, over time this tends to dwindle and fade as each partner begins to make assumptions about the other. For example, one partner wants more attention or love but expresses this by acting angry and nagging, the other begins to withdraw and pull back not knowing how to react and possibly feeling as though they can’t do anything right and so begins, the “dance” of the couple. The more one nags and pursues, the more the other pulls back and begins to withdraw. At this point, the relationship begins to unravel leaving each partner wondering if the other is there for them or not. During this dance, neither really discusses the deep emotional pain they are really feeling, which keeps them spiraling around in this cycle.
Once you have been able to identify your relationship’s negative cycle, you can both agree to break the cycle. Although disappointments will always be a part of every relationship, we can choose how we handle them. We can handle them in the same old ways, reflecting fear and defensiveness or we can handle them with a little more understanding. If you and your spouse feel as though you are constantly caught in an endless negative cycle, schedule an appointment to begin changing that cycle by learning to understand the underlying emotions and recreating a deeper emotional connection with your partner.
Johnson, S. (2009). Hold me tight. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200812/hold-me-tight
Are you having a hard time connecting with and understanding your teenager? While research shows that adolescent turmoil is NOT a universal phenomenon, it does show that emotional stress and turmoil are more common during adolescence than at other ages. As you may already know, adolescents are prone to greater extremes in mood, as well as more frequent shifts in mood than younger or older people. Here are the 3 common errors that occur when we don’t fully understand adolescent development:
Ignoring serious problems.
Misinterpreting problematic behavior as developmentally normal can cause parents to underestimate the severity of their teen’s problem. “If parents believe that it is typical for an adolescent to be moody, irritable, and sullen, they can aggravate the problem by ignoring it” (Micucci, 2009).
Parents might overreact by assuming that a specific behavior signals pathology. For example, a teen may show signs of being depressed when in fact; they may just be having a hard week. This causes the parent to prematurely diagnose and treat them as if they have depression. Sometimes this inaccurate perception of the adolescent can cause a self-fulfilling prophecy, which may push the adolescent to exhibit more of that behavior in an effort to assert independence.
Preventing growth by restricting freedom.
Adolescent stereotypes such as rebellious, wild, and hatred of authority may lead parents to overreact when challenged by their teenager. Also, believing that teenagers aren’t interested in having a relationship with them can cause parents to back off too early, which deprives the teen of the guidance and nurturing they continue to need. “Adolescents need parents who allow them ample room to experience the consequences of their own decisions, but who also provide reasonable limits that mirror those the adolescent is likely to encounter in the adult world” (Micucci, 2009).
As you can see, parenting adolescents can be a difficult balancing act. It is important to understand that the human brain is not fully developed until the early 20’s. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that is still undergoing considerable development during adolescence. These functions include decision-making, planning, and impulse control. As fully developed adults, we have the capacity to consider options before responding, reflect on our “gut” reactions, and put situations into context. This is not the case for adolescents, because the brain regions that assist emotional regulation and consequences of actions are not fully developed yet. This can be frustrating and annoying to adults, which can cause them to respond in ways that increase the intensity of the interaction and make it even more likely that the adolescent will respond in an impulsive way. “In contrast, adults who remain calm in their interactions with adolescents not only model appropriate behavior, but also keep the level of affect within range that the adolescent’s maturing brain can manage” (Micucci, 2009). If you are experiencing difficulty connecting with and understanding your teen, schedule an appointment with us as Wasatch Family Therapy today!
Micucci, J. A. (2009). The Adolescent in Family Therapy: Harnessing the Power of Relationships (2nd Ed). NY: Guilford Press.